surviving spouse will

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caliguy
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surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Mon Aug 08, 2016 10:00 pm

my Peruvian wife is in very poor health after having colon cancer for the past 3 years. she now wants to get a will that will give her 50% of our assets, which is currently about 1.2 mil. she wants to give her half to her 2 brothers here in Peru. Is this the way it works here? i know in the U.S. the surviving spouse is entitled to 100%. we have no children. i owned a business in Los Angeles, CA that was very profitable, and all money that we made was through this business. thank you for any input.


every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
victmanu
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby victmanu » Mon Aug 08, 2016 11:23 pm

Read the codigo civil
Article number 725, Your wife can inherit to her brothers a third part of Your shares.


TITULO III - La legitima y la porcion disponible

Articulo 723º.- Nocion de legitima

La legitima constituye la parte de la herencia de la que no puede disponer libremente el testador cuando tiene herederos forzosos.

Articulo 724º.- Herederos forzosos

Son herederos forzosos los hijos y los demas descendientes, los padres y los demas ascendientes, y el conyuge.

Articulo 725º.- Tercio de libre disposicion

El que tiene hijos u otros descendientes, o conyuge, puede disponer libremente hasta del tercio de sus bienes.


Articulo 726º.- Libre disposicion de la mitad de los bienes

El que tiene solo padres u otros ascendientes, puede disponer libremente hasta de la mitad de sus bienes.

Articulo 727º.- Libre disposicion

El que no tiene conyuge ni parientes de los indicados en los articulos 725 y 726, tiene la libre disposicion de la totalidad de sus bienes.

Articulo 728º.- Gravamen sobre la porcion disponible

Si el testador estuviese obligado al pago de una pension alimenticia conforme al articulo 415, la porcion disponible quedara gravada hasta donde fuera necesario para cumplirla.

Articulo 729º.- Legitima de heredero forzoso

La legitima de cada uno de los herederos forzosos es una cuota igual a la que les corresponde en la sucesion intestada, cuyas disposiciones rigen, asimismo, su concurrencia, participacion o exclusion.

Articulo 730º.- Legitima del conyuge

La legitima del conyuge es independiente del derecho que le corresponde por concepto de gananciales provenientes de la liquidacion de la sociedad de bienes del matrimonio.

Articulo 731º.- Derecho de habitacion vitalicia del conyuge superstite

Cuando el conyuge sobreviviente concurra con otros herederos y sus derechos por concepto de legitima y gananciales no alcanzaren el valor necesario para que le sea adjudicada la casa-habitacion en que existio el hogar conyugal, dicho conyuge podra optar por el derecho de habitacion en forma vitalicia y gratuita sobre la referida casa. Este derecho recae sobre la diferencia existente entre el valor del bien y el de sus derechos por concepto de legitima y gananciales.

La diferencia de valor afectara la cuota de libre disposicion del causante y, si fuere necesario, la reservada a los demas herederos en proporcion a los derechos hereditarios de estos.

En su caso, los otros bienes se dividen entre los demas herederos, con exclusion del conyuge sobreviviente.

Articulo 732º.- Derecho de usufructo del conyuge superstite

Si en el caso del articulo 731, el conyuge sobreviviente no estuviere en situacion economica que le permita sostener los gastos de la casa-habitacion, podra, con autorizacion judicial, darla en arrendamiento, percibir para si la renta y ejercer sobre la diferencia existente entre el valor del bien y el de sus derechos por concepto de legitima y gananciales los demas derechos inherentes al usufructuario. Si se extingue el arrendamiento, el conyuge sobreviviente podra readquirir a su sola voluntad el derecho de habitacion a que se refiere el articulo 731.

Mientras este afectado por los derechos de habitacion o de usufructo, en su caso, la casa-habitacion tendra la condicion legal de patrimonio familiar.

Si el conyuge sobreviviente contrae nuevo matrimonio, vive en concubinato o muere, los derechos que le son concedidos en este articulo y en el articulo 731 se extinguen, quedando expedita la particion del bien. Tambien se extinguen tales derechos cuando el conyuge sobreviviente renuncia a ellos.

Articulo 733º.- Intangibilidad de la legitima

El testador no puede privar de la legitima a sus herederos forzosos, sino en los casos expresamente determinados por la ley, ni imponer sobre aquella gravamen, modalidad, ni sustitucion alguna. Tampoco puede privar a su conyuge de los derechos que le conceden los articulos 731 y 732, salvo en los referidos casos.

TITULO IV - Institucion y sustitucion de herederos y legatarios

Articulo 734º.- Institucion de heredero o legatario

La institucion de heredero o legatario debe recaer en persona cierta, designada de manera indubitable por el testador, salvo lo dispuesto en el articulo 763, y ser hecha solo en testamento.

Articulo 735º.- Sucesion a titulo universal y particular

La institucion de heredero es a titulo universal y comprende la totalidad de los bienes, derechos y obligaciones que constituyen la herencia o una cuota parte de ellos. La institucion de legatario es a titulo particular y se limita a determinados bienes, salvo lo dispuesto en el articulo

756. El error del testador en la denominacion de uno u otro no modifica la naturaleza de la disposicion.

Articulo 736º.- Forma de instituir al heredero forzoso

La institucion de heredero forzoso se hara en forma simple y absoluta. Las modalidades que imponga el testador se tendran por no puestas.

Articulo 737º.- Institucion de heredero voluntario

El testador que no tenga herederos forzosos, puede instituir uno o mas herederos voluntarios y señalar la parte de la herencia que asigna a cada uno. Si no la determina, sucederan en partes iguales.

Articulo 738º.- Caudal disponible para legatarios

El testador puede instituir legatarios, con la parte disponible si tiene herederos forzosos, y no teniendolos, hasta con la totalidad de sus bienes y señalar los que asigna a cada uno de los legatarios.

El testador puede imponer tanto a los herederos voluntarios como a los legatarios, condiciones y cargos que no sean contrarios a la ley, a las buenas costumbres y al libre ejercicio de los derechos fundamentales de la persona.

Articulo 739º.- Remanente que corresponde a herederos legales

Si el testador que carece de herederos forzosos no ha instituido herederos voluntarios y dispone en legados de solo parte de sus bienes, el remanente que hubiere corresponde a sus herederos legales.

Articulo 740º.- Igualdad de condiciones y cargos entre sustitutos y legatarios

El testador puede designar sustituto a los herederos voluntarios y a los legatarios para el caso en que el instituido muera antes que el testador, o que renuncie a la herencia o al legado o que los pierda por indignidad.

Articulo 741º.- Igualdad de condiciones y cargos entre sustitutos e instituidos

Los herederos voluntarios y legatarios sustitutos quedan sujetos a las mismas condiciones y cargos que el instituido, a menos que el testador disponga otra cosa, o que las condiciones y cargos impuestos sean por su naturaleza inherentes a la persona del instituido.

TITULO V - Desheredacion

Articulo 742º.- Nocion de desheredacion

Por la desheredacion el testador puede privar de la legitima al heredero forzoso que hubiera incurrido en alguna de las causales previstas en la ley.

Articulo 743º.- Obligacion de expresar causal de desheredacion

La causal de desheredacion debe ser expresada claramente en el testamento. La desheredacion dispuesta sin expresion de causa, o por causa no señalada en la ley, o sujeta a condicion, no es valida. La fundada en causa falsa es anulable.

Articulo 744º.- Causales de desheredacion de descendientes

Son causales de desheredacion de los descendientes:

1.- Haber maltratado de obra o injuriado grave y reiteradamente al ascendiente o a su conyuge, si este es tambien ascendiente del ofensor.

2.- Haberle negado sin motivo justificado los alimentos o haber abandonado al ascendiente encontrandose este gravemente enfermo o sin poder valerse por si mismo.

3.- Haberle privado de su libertad injustificadamente.

4.- Llevar el descendiente una vida deshonrosa o inmoral.

Articulo 745º.- Causales de desheredacion de ascendientes

Son causales de desheredacion de los ascendientes:

1.- Haber negado injustificadamente los alimentos a sus descendientes.

2.- Haber incurrido el ascendiente en alguna de las causas por las que se pierde la patria potestad o haber sido privado de ella.

Articulo 746º.- Causales de desheredacion del conyuge

Son causales de desheredacion del conyuge las previstas en el articulo 333, incisos 1 a 6.(*)

(*) Rectificado por Fe de Erratas publicado el 24-07-84.

Articulo 747º.- Desheredacion por indignidad

El testador puede fundamentar la desheredacion en las causales especificas de esta, enumeradas en los articulos 744 a 746, y en las de indignidad señaladas en el articulo 667.

Articulo 748º.- Personas exentas de desheredacion

No pueden ser desheredados los incapaces menores de edad, ni los mayores que por cualquier causa se encuentren privados de discernimiento. Estas personas tampoco pueden ser excluidas de la herencia por indignidad.

Articulo 749º.- Efectos de desheredacion

Los efectos de la desheredacion se refieren a la legitima y no se extienden a las donaciones y legados otorgados al heredero, que el causante puede revocar, ni a los alimentos debidos por ley, ni a otros derechos que corresponden al heredero con motivo de la muerte del testador.

Articulo 750º.- Accion contradictoria de la desheredacion

El derecho de contradecir la desheredacion corresponde al desheredado o a sus sucesores y se extingue a los dos años, contados desde la muerte del testador o desde que el desheredado tiene conocimiento del contenido del testamento.

Articulo 751º.- Accion del causante para justificar desheredacion

El que deshereda puede interponer demanda contra el desheredado para justificar su decision. La demanda se tramita como proceso abreviado. La sentencia que se pronuncie impide contradecir la desheredacion.(*)

(*)

Articulo vigente conforme a la modificacion establecida por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Texto Unico Ordenado del Codigo Procesal Civil, aprobado por Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, publicada el 23-0.- 93.

Nota: La Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, recoge la modificacion hecha anteriormente a este articulo por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Decreto Legislativo Nº 768, publicado el 04-03-92.

Articulo 752º.- Prueba de desheredacion a cargo de herederos

En caso de no haberse promovido juicio por el testador para justificar la desheredacion, corresponde a sus herederos probar la causa, si el desheredado o sus sucesores la contradicen.

Articulo 753º.- Revocacion de la desheredacion

La desheredacion queda revocada por instituir heredero al desheredado o por declaracion expresada en el testamento o en escritura publica. En tal caso, no produce efecto el juicio anterior seguido para justificar la desheredacion.

Articulo 754º.- Renovacion de desheredacion

Revocada la desheredacion no puede ser renovada sino por hechos posteriores.

Articulo 755º.- Herederos en representacion del desheredado

Los descendientes del desheredado heredan por representacion la legitima que corresponderia a este si no hubiere sido excluido. El desheredado no tiene derecho al usufructo ni a la administracion de los bienes que por esta causa adquieran sus descendientes que sean menores de edad o incapaces.

TITULO VI - Legados

Articulo 756º.- Facultad de disponer por legado

El testador puede disponer como acto de liberalidad y a titulo de legado, de uno o mas de sus bienes, o de una parte de ellos, dentro de su facultad de libre disposicion.

Articulo 757º.- Invalidez del legado

No es valido el legado de un bien determinado, si no se halla en el dominio del testador al tiempo de su muerte.

Articulo 758º.- Legado de bien indeterminado

Es valido el legado de un bien mueble indeterminado, aunque no lo haya en la herencia. La eleccion, salvo disposicion diversa del testador, corresponde al encargado de pagar el legado, quien cumplira con dar un bien que no sea de calidad inferior ni superior a aquel, debiendo tener en consideracion la parte disponible de la herencia y las necesidades del legatario.

Articulo 759º.- Legado de bien parcialmente ajeno

El legado de un bien que pertenece al testador solo en parte o sobre el cual este tiene otro derecho, es valido en cuanto a la parte o al derecho que corresponde al testador.

Articulo 760º.- Legado de bien gravado

Si el testador lega un bien que esta gravado por derechos reales de garantia, el bien pasara al legatario con los gravamenes que tuviere. El servicio de amortizacion e intereses de la deuda, seran de cargo del testador hasta el dia de su muerte.

Articulo 761º.- Legado de bien sujeto a uso, usufructo y habitacion

Si el bien legado estuviere sujeto a usufructo, uso o habitacion en favor de tercera persona, el legatario respetara estos derechos hasta que se extingan .

Articulo 762º.- Legado de credito y condonacion de deuda

El legado de un credito tiene efecto solo en cuanto a la parte del mismo que subsiste en el momento de la muerte del testador. El heredero esta obligado a entregar al legatario el titulo del credito que le ha sido legado. El legado de liberacion de una deuda comprende lo adeudado a la fecha de apertura de la sucesion.(*)

(*) Rectificado por Fe de Erratas publicado el 24-07-84.

Articulo 763º.- Legado para fines sociales

Son validos los legados hechos en favor de los pobres o para fines culturales o religiosos, que seran entregados por el heredero a quienes indique el testador. A falta de indicacion los primeros seran entregados a la Beneficencia Publica; los segundos al Instituto Nacional de Cultura o a los organismos que hagan sus veces en uno u otro caso; y los terceros, a la autoridad competente de la religion que profesaba el testador.

Articulo 764º.- Legado de predio

Si el bien legado es un predio, los terrenos y las nuevas construcciones que el testador haya agregado despues del testamento no forman parte del legado, salvo las mejoras introducidas en el inmueble, cualquiera que fuese su clase.

Articulo 765º.- Legado en dinero

El legado en dinero debe ser pagado en esta especie, aunque no lo haya en la herencia.

Articulo 766º.- Legado de alimentos

El legado de alimentos, si el testador no determino su cuantia y forma de pago, se cumple asignando al legatario una pension que se regira por lo establecido en las disposiciones de los articulos 472 a 487.

Articulo 767º.- Legado remuneratorio

El legado remuneratorio se considera como pago, en la parte en que corresponda razonablemente al servicio prestado por el beneficiario del testador y como acto de liberalidad en cuanto al exceso.

Articulo 768º.- Legado sujeto a modalidad

El legatario no adquiere el legado subordinado a condicion suspensiva o al vencimiento de un plazo, mientras no se cumpla la condicion o venza el plazo. Mientras tanto puede ejercer las medidas precautorias de su derecho. El legado con cargo, se rige por lo dispuesto para las donaciones sujetas a esta modalidad.

Articulo 769º.- Legado de bien determinado

En el legado de bien determinado no sujeto a condicion o plazo, el legatario lo adquiere en el estado en que se halle a la muerte del testador. Desde ese momento le corresponden los frutos del bien legado y asume el riesgo de su perdida o deterioro, salvo dolo o culpa de quien lo tuviere en su poder.

Articulo 770º.- Reduccion del legado

Si el valor de los legados excede de la parte disponible de la herencia, estos se reducen a prorrata, a menos que el testador haya establecido el orden en que deben ser pagados.

El legado hecho en favor de alguno de los coherederos no esta sujeto a reduccion, salvo que la herencia fuere insuficiente para el pago de las deudas.

Articulo 771º.- Cuarta falcidia

Si el testador que tiene la libre disposicion de sus bienes instituye herederos voluntarios y legatarios, la parte que corresponde a aquellos no sera menor de la cuarta parte de la herencia, con cuyo objeto seran reducidos a prorrata los legados, si fuere necesario.

Articulo 772º.- Caducidad del legado

Caduca el legado:

1.- Si el legatario muere antes que el testador.

2.- Si el legatario se divorcia o se separa judicialmente del testador por su culpa.

3.- Si el testador enajena el bien legado o este perece sin culpa del heredero.

Articulo 773º.- Aceptacion y renuncia del legado

Es aplicable al legado la disposicion del articulo 677.

TITULO VII - Derecho de acrecer

Articulo 774º.- Derecho de acrecer entre coherederos

Si varios herederos son instituidos en la totalidad de los bienes sin determinacion de partes o en partes iguales y alguno de ellos no quiere o no puede recibir la suya, esta acrece las de los demas, salvo el derecho de representacion.

Articulo 775º.- Derecho de acrecer entre colegatarios

Cuando un mismo bien es legado a varias personas, sin determinacion de partes y alguna de ellas no quiera o no pueda recibir la que le corresponde, esta acrecera las partes de los demas.

Articulo 776º.- Reintegro del legado a la masa hereditaria

El legado se reintegra a la masa hereditaria cuando no tiene efecto por cualquier causa, o cuando el legatario no puede o no quiere recibirlo.

Articulo 777º.- Improcedencia del derecho a acrecer

El derecho de acrecer no tiene lugar cuando del testamento resulta una voluntad diversa del testador.

TITULO VIII - Albaceas

Articulo 778º.- Nombramiento de albacea

El testador puede encomendar a una o varias personas, a quienes se denomina albaceas o ejecutores testamentarios, el cumplimiento de sus disposiciones de ultima voluntad.

Articulo 779º.- Formalidad del nombramiento

El nombramiento de albacea debe constar en testamento.

Articulo 780º.- Pluralidad de albaceas

Cuando hay varios albaceas testamentarios nombrados para que ejerzan el cargo conjuntamente, vale lo que todos hagan de consuno o lo que haga uno de ellos autorizado por los demas. En caso de desacuerdo vale lo que decide la mayoria.

Articulo 781º.- Responsabilidad solidaria de los albaceas

Es solidaria la reponsabilidad de los albaceas que ejercen conjuntamente el cargo, salvo disposicion distinta del testador.

Articulo 782º.- Ejercicio concurrente o sucesivo del albacea

Si el testador no dispone que los albaceas actuen conjuntamente, ni les atribuye funciones especificas a cada uno de ellos, desempeñaran el cargo sucesivamente, unos a falta de otros, en el orden en que se les ha designado.

Articulo 783º.- Personas impedidas al cargo de albaceas

No puede ser albacea el que esta incurso en los articulos 667, 744, 745 y 746.

Articulo 784º.- Albaceazgo por personas juridicas

Pueden ser albaceas las personas juridicas autorizadas por ley o por su estatuto.

Articulo 785º.- Excusa y renuncia del albacea

El albacea puede excusarse de aceptar el cargo, pero si lo hubiera aceptado, no podra renunciarlo sino por justa causa, a juicio del juez.

Articulo 786º.- Plazo para aceptacion del cargo

Mientras el albacea no acepte el cargo o no se excuse, el juez al que corresponda conocer de la sucesion, a solicitud de parte interesada, le señalara un plazo prudencial para la aceptacion, transcurrido el cual se tendra por rehusado.

Articulo 787º.- Obligaciones del albacea

Son obligaciones del albacea:

1.- Atender a la inhumacion del cadaver del testador o a su incineracion si este lo hubiera dispuesto asi, sin perjuicio de lo establecido en el articulo 13.

2.- Ejercitar las acciones judiciales y extrajudiciales para la seguridad de los bienes hereditarios.

3.- Hacer inventario judicial de los bienes que constituyen la herencia, con citacion de los herederos, legatarios y acreedores de quienes tenga conocimiento.

4.- Administrar los bienes de la herencia que no hayan sido adjudicados por el testador, hasta que sean entregados a los herederos o legatarios, salvo disposicion diversa del testador.

5._ Pagar las deudas y cargas de la herencia, con conocimiento de los herederos.

6.- Pagar o entregar los legados.

7.- Vender los bienes hereditarios con autorizacion expresa del testador, o de los herederos, o del juez, en cuanto sea indispensable para pagar las deudas de la herencia y los legados.

8.- Procurar la division y particion de la herencia.

9.- Cumplir los encargos especiales del testador.

10.- Sostener la validez del testamento en el juicio de impugnacion que se promueva, sin perjuicio del apersonamiento que, en tal caso, corresponde a los herederos.

Articulo 788º.- Personeria especifica de los albaceas

Los albaceas no son representantes de la testamentaria para demandar ni responder en juicio, sino tratandose de los encargos del testador, de la administracion que les corresponde y del caso del articulo 787, inciso 10.

Articulo 789º.- Caracter personal del cargo

El albaceazgo es indelegable; pero pueden ejercerse en casos justificados algunas funciones mediante representantes, bajo las ordenes y responsabilidad del albacea.

Articulo 790º.- Posesion de bienes por el albacea

Si el testador no instituye herederos, sino solamente legatarios, la posesion de los bienes hereditarios corresponde al albacea, hasta que sean pagadas las deudas de la herencia y los legados.

Articulo 791º.- Actos de conservacion del albacea

Los herederos o legatarios pueden pedir al albacea la adopcion de medidas necesarias para mantener la indemnidad de los bienes hereditarios.

Articulo 792º.- Albacea dativo

Si el testador no hubiera designado albacea o si el nombrado no puede o no quiere desempeñar el cargo, sus atribuciones seran ejercidas por los herederos, y si no estan de acuerdo, deberan pedir al juez el nombramiento de albacea dativo.

Articulo 793º.- Remuneracion del albacea

El cargo de albacea es remunerado, salvo que el testador disponga su gratuidad.

La remuneracion no sera mayor del cuatro por ciento de la masa liquida.

En defecto de la determinacion de la remuneracion por el testador, lo hara el juez, quien tambien señalara la del albacea dativo.

Articulo 794º.- Rendicion de cuenta del albacea

Aunque el testador le hubiera eximido de este deber, dentro de los sesenta dias de terminado el albaceazgo, el albacea debe presentar a los sucesores un informe escrito de su gestion y, de ser el caso, las cuentas correspondientes, con los documentos del caso u ofreciendo otro medio probatorio. Las cuentas no requieren la observancia de formalidad especial en cuanto a su contenido, siempre que figure una relacion ordenada de ingresos y gastos.

Tambien cumplira este deber durante el ejercicio del cargo, con frecuencia no inferior a seis meses, cuando lo ordene el Juez Civil a pedido de cualquier sucesor. La solicitud se tramita como proceso no contencioso.

El informe y las cuentas se entienden aprobados si dentro del plazo de caducidad de sesenta dias de presentados no se solicita judicialmente su desaprobacion, como proceso de conocimiento.

Las reglas contenidas en este articulo son de aplicacion supletoria a todos los demas casos en los que exista deber legal o convencional de presentar cuentas de ingresos y gastos o informes de gestion. (*)

(*)

Articulo vigente conforme a la modificacion establecida por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Texto Unico Ordenado del Codigo Procesal Civil, aprobado por Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, publicada el 23-0.- 93.

Nota: La Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, recoge la modificacion hecha anteriormente a este articulo por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Decreto Legislativo Nº 768, publicado el 04-03-92.

Articulo 795º.- Remocion del albacea

Puede solicitarse, como proceso sumarisimo, la remocion del albacea que no ha empezado la faccion de inventarios dentro de los noventa dias de la muerte del testador, o de protocolizado el testamento, o de su nombramiento judicial, lo que corresponda, o dentro de los treinta dias de haber sido requerido notarialmente con tal objeto por los sucesores.(*)

(*)

Articulo vigente conforme a la modificacion establecida por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Texto Unico Ordenado del Codigo Procesal Civil, aprobado por Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, publicada el 23-0.- 93.

Nota: La Resolucion Ministerial Nº 10-93-JUS, recoge la modificacion hecha anteriormente a este articulo por la Primera Disposicion Modificatoria del Decreto Legislativo Nº 768, publicado el 04-03-92.

Articulo 796º.- Cese del cargo del albacea

El cargo de albacea termina:

1.- Por haber transcurrido dos años desde su aceptacion, salvo el mayor plazo que señale el testador, o que conceda el juez con acuerdo de la mayoria de los herederos.

2.- Por haber concluido sus funciones.

3.- Por renuncia con aprobacion judicial.

4.- Por incapacidad legal o fisica que impida el desempeño de la funcion.

5.- Por remocion judicial, a peticion de parte debidamente fundamentada.

6.- Por muerte, desaparicion o declaracion de ausencia.

Articulo 797º.- Obligacion de albacea de cumplir con la voluntad del testador

El albacea esta facultado durante el ejercicio de su cargo y en cualquier tiempo despues de haberlo ejercido, para exigir que se cumpla la voluntad del testador. Carece de esta facultad el que ceso por renuncia o por haber sido removido del cargo.

TITULO IX - Revocacion, caducidad y nulidad de los testamentos

CAPITULO PRIMERO - Revocacion

Articulo 798º.- Revocacion del testamento

El testador tiene el derecho de revocar, en cualquier tiempo, sus disposiciones testamentarias. Toda declaracion que haga en contrario carece de valor.

Articulo 799º.- Forma de revocar

La revocacion expresa del testamento, total o parcial, o de algunas de sus disposiciones, solo puede ser hecha por otro testamento, cualquiera que sea su forma.

Articulo 800º.- Revivisencia de testamento anterior

Si el testamento que revoca uno anterior es revocado a su vez por otro posterior, reviven las disposiciones del primero, a menos que el testador exprese su voluntad contraria.

Articulo 801º.- Revocacion parcial de testamento

El testamento que no es revocado total y expresamente por otro posterior, subsiste en las disposiciones compatibles con las de este ultimo.

Articulo 802º.- Revocacion del testamento cerrado

El testamento cerrado queda revocado si el testador lo retira de la custodia del notario.

Articulo 803º.- Validez del testamento cerrado como olografo

Tanto en el caso previsto en el articulo 802 como en el de su apertura por el testador, el testamento cerrado vale como olografo si se conserva el pliego interior y este reune las formalidades señaladas en la primera parte del articulo 707.

Articulo 804º.- Revocacion de testamento olografo

El testamento olografo queda revocado si el testador lo rompe, destruye o inutiliza de cualquier otra manera.

CAPITULO SEGUNDO - Caducidad

Articulo 805º.- Caducidad de testamento

El testamento caduca, en cuanto a la institucion de heredero:

1.- Si el testador deja herederos forzosos que no tenia cuando otorgo el testamento y que vivan; o que esten concebidos al momento de su muerte, a condicion de que nazcan vivos.

2.- Si el heredero renuncia a la herencia o muere antes que el testador sin dejar representacion sucesoria, o cuando el heredero es el conyuge y se declara la separacion judicial por culpa propia o el divorcio.

3.- Si el heredero pierde la herencia por declaracion de indignidad o por desheredacion, sin dejar descendientes que puedan representarlo.

Articulo 806º.- Pretericion de heredero forzoso

La pretericion de uno o mas herederos forzosos, invalida la institucion de herederos en cuanto resulte afectada la legitima que corresponde a los preteridos. Luego de haber sido pagada esta, la porcion disponible pertenece a quienes hubieren sido instituidos indebidamente herederos, cuya condicion legal es la de legatarios.

Articulo 807º.- Reduccion de disposiciones testamentarias

Las disposiciones testamentarias que menoscaban la legitima de los herederos, se reduciran, a peticion de estos, en lo que fueren excesivas.

CAPITULO TERCERO - Nulidad

Articulo 808º.- Nulidad y anulabilidad de testamento

Es nulo el testamento otorgado por incapaces menores de edad y por los mayores enfermos mentales cuya interdiccion ha sido declarada. Es anulable el de las demas personas incapaces comprendidas en el articulo 687.

Articulo 809º.- Nulidad de testamento por vicios de voluntad

Es anulable el testamento obtenido por la violencia, la intimidacion o el dolo. Tambien son anulables las disposiciones testamentarias debidas a error esencial de hecho o de derecho del testador, cuando el error aparece en el testamento y es el unico motivo que ha determinado al testador a disponer.

Articulo 810º.- Nulidad por falsa muerte de heredero

Cuando un testamento ha sido otorgado expresando como causa la muerte del heredero instituido en uno anterior, valdra este y se tendra por no otorgado aquel, si resulta falsa la noticia de la muerte.

Articulo 811º.- Nulidad por defecto de forma

El testamento es nulo de pleno derecho, por defectos de forma, si es infractorio de lo dispuesto en el articulo 695 o, en su caso, de los articulos 696, 699 y 707, salvo lo previsto en el articulo 697.

Articulo 812º.- Anulabilidad por defecto de forma

El testamento es anulable por defectos de forma cuando no han sido cumplidas las demas formalidades señaladas para la clase de testamento empleada por el testador. La accion no puede ser ejercida en este caso por quienes ejecutaron voluntariamente el testamento, y caduca a los dos años contados desde la fecha en que el heredero tuvo conocimiento del mismo.

Articulo 813º.- Nulidad y anulabilidad de testamentos especiales

Los testamentos especiales son nulos de pleno derecho cuando falta la forma escrita, la firma del testador o de la persona autorizada para recibirlos. Son anulables en el caso del articulo 812.

Articulo 814º.- Nulidad de testamento comun

Es nulo el testamento otorgado en comun por dos o mas personas.





http://www.abogadoperu.com/codigo-civil ... -legal.php
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gringolandia
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby gringolandia » Tue Aug 09, 2016 1:25 am

From a practical perspective, it may be relevant where the money is.

Legal issues aside, if the money and assets are mostly in LA in your name, the brothers will have a heck of a time going after it. As they say, possession is 9/10ths of ownership.

But if the money and assets have been shifted from your company in LA to Peru... it could be an entirely different matter.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby fanning » Tue Aug 09, 2016 6:42 am

Half of what you both have is already legally yours. That half is yours the begin with.
The other half is of your wife. That will go in your case for the 100% to you as her only heredero is you, but she is entitled to give with a will registered in registros publicos the 33% to terceros. ( So neto 16.67 % of the total assets of you and her )
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Tue Aug 09, 2016 9:07 am

gringolandia wrote:From a practical perspective, it may be relevant where the money is.

Legal issues aside, if the money and assets are mostly in LA in your name, the brothers will have a heck of a time going after it. As they say, possession is 9/10ths of ownership.

But if the money and assets have been shifted from your company in LA to Peru... it could be an entirely different matter.

a large percentage of the assets are in U.S. we have about 400k here in Lima.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby woodchuck » Tue Aug 09, 2016 12:06 pm

Caliguy,

My deepest & sincere condolences regarding the health of your wife.
You have been a valued poster on expatperu for many years.
I hope you can resolve the situation with the will.
Send me a PM if there is anything I can do - please.

My prayers are with you. :roll:
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Tue Aug 09, 2016 12:07 pm

victmanu wrote:Read the codigo civil
Article number 725, Your wife can inherit to her brothers a third part of Your shares.

thanks for the link victmanu. i translated it to english, and got this: Article 725º.- freely Tertius

"Anyone who has children or other descendants, or spouse, freely available to the third of its assets".
doesn't state brothers and sisters, or is "other descendants" considered brothers? we don't have children and both of her parents are deceased. can you give a little more detail on article 725?
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby fanning » Tue Aug 09, 2016 12:23 pm

Art 725 applies to your case ( the deceased has children ( or grandchildren ) or spouse ) 1/3 is free disposition
Art 726 applies if you don't have children or spouse, but the deceased has parents or grandparents. 1/2 is free disposition
Art 727 applies if 725 and 726 don't apply. ( 100 % is free disposition )
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Tue Aug 09, 2016 3:08 pm

woodchuck wrote:Caliguy,

My deepest & sincere condolences regarding the health of your wife.
You have been a valued poster on expatperu for many years.
I hope you can resolve the situation with the will.
Send me a PM if there is anything I can do - please.

My prayers are with you. :roll:

thanks woodchuck. can't really say i've been an asset here though :D
fanning wrote:Art 725 applies to your case ( the deceased has children ( or grandchildren ) or spouse ) 1/3 is free disposition
Art 726 applies if you don't have children or spouse, but the deceased has parents or grandparents. 1/2 is free disposition
Art 727 applies if 725 and 726 don't apply. ( 100 % is free disposition )

thanks fanning, i guess i'll have to live with that. looks like the brothers will be getting 6 figures after everything is liquidated.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby woodchuck » Wed Aug 10, 2016 2:44 pm

Caliguy, trying to follow along.
If the law says nothing about BROTHERS specifically, I would assume they are entitled to nothing of the distribution - unless a will dictates otherwise.
In the US, this would be the case
Anyone please correct me if I am interpreting this incorrectly. Thanks. :roll:
PS - praying for your lovely wife...
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby Lloyd007 » Wed Aug 10, 2016 4:19 pm

This is a complex theme. You might want to get some good advice from a good lawyer in this very field.
Try Dra. Carolina at Puente Diaz Matos, Tel> 372 6261 (Spanish only).
She was very detailed when I had a similar question.

PS, take out of Peru what you can while you still can.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby bigdaddy » Wed Aug 10, 2016 9:26 pm

I can't believe these replies here.
The woman is very ill and you don't want to honor her last wishes?
That's cold blooded.
Large and in charge!
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 9:18 am

bigdaddy wrote:I can't believe these replies here.
The woman is very ill and you don't want to honor her last wishes?
That's cold blooded.

i want to honor her wishes. 50% just seems a a bit much to give her brothers who have done nothing for her. i need to start a new life as well. as i said above, the 1/3 rd. is fine with me.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby ironchefchris » Thu Aug 11, 2016 10:33 am

Sorry to hear about your wife´s health condition, caliguy. Cancer sucks.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby windsportinperu » Thu Aug 11, 2016 10:52 am

Caliguy,

Last time we talked by PM, I heard about the sickness of your wife, I didn't imagine is was going to be so hard for you and for her. Having a very close relative with long period sickness is quite sad and quite exhausting..

Family ties could be very strong among sibling in Peru. I have a very lovely relationship with my sibling, niece, some cousins, etc. In a practical way, this means helping each other during the good moments and the bad moments. Unfortunately, not all the family ties are as strong and good as the one I have..
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 11:16 am

ironchefchris wrote:Sorry to hear about your wife´s health condition, caliguy. Cancer sucks.

yes it does :( it's been a very difficult time for both my wife and myself.
windsportinperu wrote:Family ties could be very strong among sibling in Peru.
totally agree with that. hope you're doing well windsportinperu :D
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby bigdaddy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 11:20 am

caliguy wrote:
bigdaddy wrote:I can't believe these replies here.
The woman is very ill and you don't want to honor her last wishes?
That's cold blooded.

i want to honor her wishes. 50% just seems a a bit much to give her brothers who have done nothing for her. i need to start a new life as well. as i said above, the 1/3 rd. is fine with me.


Seems like simple mathematics to me.
You & her. 50/50.
Her 50% should be hers to do with as she sees fit.
Large and in charge!
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby windsportinperu » Thu Aug 11, 2016 11:47 am

bigdaddy wrote:
caliguy wrote:
bigdaddy wrote:I can't believe these replies here.
The woman is very ill and you don't want to honor her last wishes?
That's cold blooded.

i want to honor her wishes. 50% just seems a a bit much to give her brothers who have done nothing for her. i need to start a new life as well. as i said above, the 1/3 rd. is fine with me.


Seems like simple mathematics to me.
You & her. 50/50.
Her 50% should be hers to do with as she sees fit.


Life is not as simple as 1+1 = 2 , if it were that way, I could solve all of my problems just making some basic arithmetical equations..
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby bigdaddy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 11:57 am

Nobody said life was simple but in this case, it's cut and dried.
His rational is they don't deserve 50% but it's her share and should be her decision.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby woodchuck » Thu Aug 11, 2016 12:05 pm

I personally know the dynamics of this family situation since 2012.
I can attest the brothers have done - nothing - for Caliguy's wife during this time period.
It is a shame she is so ill, but the brothers have been aware of this & done - nothing.

I can understand why Caliguy is upset with the brothers receiving a large portion of the estate.
Not fighting the anticipated 1/3 distribution is admirable, as if it was me; I would fight.
The brothers have been given significant financial rewards over the years.

Caliguy, you should still visit with an attorney over this matter.
I am sure everyone at expatperu is praying for you & your wife. Best wishes. :roll:
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby windsportinperu » Thu Aug 11, 2016 12:15 pm

bigdaddy wrote:Nobody said life was simple but in this case, it's cut and dried.
His rational is they don't deserve 50% but it's her share and should be her decision.


I respectfully don't agree with your point of view. It is neither a cut-and-dry situation nor simple mathematics.. It is a complex situation where the whole life of a family is involved.

Here a wise saying: "dadle as Cesar lo que es del Cesar, y dadle a Dios lo que es Dios"

Good wishes for you..
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 1:04 pm

bigdaddy wrote:Seems like simple mathematics to me.
You & her. 50/50.
Her 50% should be hers to do with as she sees fit.

some time ago her parents passed away, her father 1st, and her mother more recent. the parents left their estate to the 3 surviving children (wife included), and there's nothing in the will that states i will be receiving any proceeds of the estate, and i could care less as this is part of their inheritance from the parents many years of hard work.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby ironchefchris » Thu Aug 11, 2016 1:32 pm

I agree with Woodchuck and Windsportinperu. The only thing cut and dry about this situation is what the law says, and even then I'm sure lawyers would find some reason to suggest that's not entirely cut and dry either. The rest is all interpersonal family dynamics that's anything but cut and dry. Opinions likely differ amongst all who are fully aware of the particulars of the situation.

Sending out good thoughts to caliguy. Dealing with all of these issues simultaneously has to be trying.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby 69roadrunner » Thu Aug 11, 2016 1:52 pm

caliguy wrote:
bigdaddy wrote:Seems like simple mathematics to me.
You & her. 50/50.
Her 50% should be hers to do with as she sees fit.

some time ago her parents passed away, her father 1st, and her mother more recent. the parents left their estate to the 3 surviving children (wife included), and there's nothing in the will that states i will be receiving any proceeds of the estate, and i could care less as this is part of their inheritance from the parents many years of hard work.


Any moral person would see it as cut and dried. But if there is a need to bring in lawyers and go against a dying person wish, well it says a lot about Caliguys morals and those that agree that dying wishes should not be followed but litigated in public.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Thu Aug 11, 2016 2:27 pm

69roadrunner wrote:
caliguy wrote:
bigdaddy wrote:Seems like simple mathematics to me.
You & her. 50/50.
Her 50% should be hers to do with as she sees fit.

some time ago her parents passed away, her father 1st, and her mother more recent. the parents left their estate to the 3 surviving children (wife included), and there's nothing in the will that states i will be receiving any proceeds of the estate, and i could care less as this is part of their inheritance from the parents many years of hard work.


Any moral person would see it as cut and dried. But if there is a need to bring in lawyers and go against a dying person wish, well it says a lot about Caliguys morals and those that agree that dying wishes should not be followed but litigated in public.

didn't say i was bringing lawyers in. waiting to see what her brothers wishes are as well.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby gringolandia » Thu Aug 11, 2016 4:05 pm

I find the assertion that always splitting assets 50/50 with a spouse is somehow the only "moral" answer hilarious.

Maybe in some specific cases it is moral, but every situation is different. Each party in a marriage comes into it with different assets, and each then helps grow (or blow) those assets in their own way. If the argument then is "marriage is morally by definition 50/50, no matter what" then that's even more hilarious. Marriage was originally more of a property arrangement with the man basically owning the wife, and in some parts of the world still is. Some traditionalists would argue that a marriage without children isn't even a consummated marriage. Marriage has shifted throughout history and continues to shift. A progressive could even argue that marriage today is a morally outdated concept not suited to relationships and families in the modern world. The local laws may attempt to make this as black and white as possible, even though it often fails. But morally this is anything but black and white.

Not going to debate it here... just noting how ridiculously funny I found the "moral" argument (notably coming from forum newbies who perhaps are being intentionally inflammatory) to be.

I'm glad the OP managed to get some good advice before this started to go sideways.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby 69roadrunner » Thu Aug 11, 2016 4:32 pm

gringolandia wrote:I find the assertion that always splitting assets 50/50 with a spouse is somehow the only "moral" answer hilarious.

Maybe in some specific cases it is moral, but every situation is different. Each party in a marriage comes into it with different assets, and each then helps grow (or blow) those assets in their own way. If the argument then is "marriage is morally by definition 50/50, no matter what" then that's even more hilarious. Marriage was originally more of a property arrangement with the man basically owning the wife, and in some parts of the world still is. Some traditionalists would argue that a marriage without children isn't even a consummated marriage. Marriage has shifted throughout history and continues to shift. A progressive could even argue that marriage today is a morally outdated concept not suited to relationships and families in the modern world. The local laws may attempt to make this as black and white as possible, even though it often fails. But morally this is anything but black and white.

Not going to debate it here... just noting how ridiculously funny I found the "moral" argument (notably coming from forum newbies who perhaps are being intentionally inflammatory) to be.

I'm glad the OP managed to get some good advice before this started to go sideways.


No one said "always splitting assets 50/50 with a spouse is somehow the only "moral" answer".
What is moral to follow a dying woman's wishes.
Twist it and intellectualize it all you want you can not deny the cold hardheartedness of fighting a dying woman's wish. It all boils down to Caliguy not wanting to follow his dying wife's wishes. Is that moral?
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby jude » Thu Aug 11, 2016 5:24 pm

First of all, I'm sorry you're having to go through this.

I suggest speaking to a lawyer, and doing what you can to protect your assets. It would be one thing if there were children involved, but I see no moral or ethical justification for giving a huge windfall to your brothers-in-law, so a 1/3 of your wife's half seems more than fair.

Lastly, ignore the hostile comments. A certain well-known idiot has taken note of this post, and is spamming his typically vile response to his email list. I'll include it below for anyone unlucky enough not to have already seen it.

" Wowza, Caligay Real Class Act
Seems his wife is about to kick the bucket and her last wish is to leave her two brothers her property.
Caligay says no, I want it all. Of course the excons are all too eager to help. The best one is get it all out of Peru before she kicks.
Very telling no ExpatPeru Forums members will chime in and tell Caligay to respect his wife's last wish. What say you Alan Larue? What a piece of work.
Follow the vicious, typical disrespect Expatperu forums members exhibited towards Peruvians time and time again as it unfolds here to deny a dying Peruvian woman's last wish.
Maybe someone could put a bug in the unsuspecting woman's ear that she is about to be screwed by her husband. We were instrumental in alerting Nature girls husband when she tried to screw him over, we are here to see justice done."
Last edited by jude on Thu Aug 11, 2016 5:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby gringolandia » Thu Aug 11, 2016 5:25 pm

Response to 69roadrunner:

As I said, I'm not going to argue what a spouse is entitled to, but I will clarify with regard to your question.

And the problem is your question presupposes that the dying person is entitled to whatever they are asking for, which goes back to the OP's specific question.

But to answer your question anyway, if a dying (or not dying, it's not necessarily relevant) person requests something they are entitled* to then all things being equal and without consideration of outside factors+, it is likely the moral thing is acquiesce to their request.

* whether they are entitled is the question. It could be argued, for example, that a starving person might be morally entitled to some of your spare food even if they have no legal claim.

+ if someone plans to use the property for an immoral purpose it can be argued that it is immoral to knowingly give them the property for that purpose.

Not so black and white in any case. Morals are funny that way.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby 69roadrunner » Thu Aug 11, 2016 5:48 pm

gringolandia wrote:Response to 69roadrunner:

As I said, I'm not going to argue what a spouse is entitled to, but I will clarify with regard to your question.

And the problem is your question presupposes that the dying person is entitled to whatever they are asking for, which goes back to the OP's specific question.

But to answer your question anyway, if a dying (or not dying, it's not necessarily relevant) person requests something they are entitled* to then all things being equal and without consideration of outside factors+, it is likely the moral thing is acquiesce to their request.

* whether they are entitled is the question. It could be argued, for example, that a starving person might be morally entitled to some of your spare food even if they have no legal claim.

+ if someone plans to use the property for an immoral purpose it can be argued that it is immoral to knowingly give them the property for that purpose.

Not so black and white in any case. Morals are funny that way.


Like a famous man once said, Bend it shape it anyway you want.
A woman wants to leave her property to whom she wants you think she should be denied that, moral or not.
Are there any other questions you are not going to answer? lol
By the way it is black and white, either Caliguy honors her wish or he does not.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby ironchefchris » Thu Aug 11, 2016 6:01 pm

If a dying spouses wish is to be able to pass on 80% of assets off all assets to whoever they want and for the surving spouse to use what's left to pay off any debts, would it be immoral for the surviving spouse not to follow their wishes? Would it be immoral if the dying spouse wished that assets that would be used to pay off debt instead went to their siblings instead, and the surviving spouse decided not to follow the wishes and instead pay off the estate's creditors? In both cases the surviving spouse wouldn't be honoring the wishes of their dying spouse.

I don't always follow the wishes of my wife and she doesn't always follow my wishes. I don't believe that makes either one of us immoral.

Nothing about morals is black and white. I'm sure Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, etc., all thought they were of high moral character and doing the moral thing.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby woodchuck » Sun Aug 14, 2016 5:21 pm

I am positive Caliguy will do the right thing by his wife.
I understand his concerns, as one of the brothers lived with him the entire time he was taking care of his wife 24/7 & did nothing to assist/help with her care.

Any one who has taken are of a cancer patient knows this is a 24/7 job; many are placed in a nursing home as the care prevents the care-giver from having a normal life. They must give up everything to be thee care-giver. This is why I feel Caliguy posted this question.

So many times family is not involved in health issues until the person dies, then they want a share of the estate for what - nothing. If this was happening totally in the US, the brothers by law would receive what they invested - nothing.

Best wishes Caliguy & your wife. Thanks for sharing. :roll:
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby gringolandia » Sun Aug 14, 2016 10:13 pm

Caliguy was certainly under no obligation to share any info, but since he has all I can say is he's clearly a very honorable guy who's already done the right thing and I have no doubt that whatever he ends up doing will be the right thing given the situation.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby caliguy » Mon Aug 15, 2016 11:24 am

thanks for all the feedback and concerns gang :D we have decided to sit down (w/o a lawyer) and discuss distribution as adults. they will be highly compensated as their sister wishes.
every place has it's own spirit. you just need to tune into it.
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby windsportinperu » Mon Aug 15, 2016 9:37 pm

caliguy wrote:thanks for all the feedback and concerns gang :D we have decided to sit down (w/o a lawyer) and discuss distribution as adults. they will be highly compensated as their sister wishes.


Caliguy, my friend, take into consideration that discussing and talking about distribution of money could have some unexpected problems. I really hope it is going to end well. If problems arrive, could eventually affect the delicate state of health of your wife.

If I were you and if it's yet possible, I would wait for a better moment to talk about.
woodchuck
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Re: surviving spouse will

Postby woodchuck » Tue Sep 13, 2016 9:08 am

Caliguy,

Probably many readers are wondering about your wife's health.
I know this is a very difficult time for you; so I don't use your personal email.
PM me if you need anything as I have a new cell #; both of you are in our prayers. :lol:

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